References and Notes


1. G. Torraca, Treatment of Stone in Monuments. A Review of Principles and Processes, in the Conservation of Stone I, Proceeding of the International Symposium, Bologna, June 1975, pp. 297-315 (Centro per la Conservazione delle Sculture all'Aperto, Bologna, Italy, 1976).

2. W. H. Dukes, Conservation of Stone: Chemical Treatments, The Architects' Journal Information Library, pp. 433-438 (August 23, 1972).

3. W. H. Gutt, Conservation of Stone. The Next Steps, Stone Industries (London), May-June (1973).

4. G. Alessandrini, C. M. Del Fa, P. Rossi-Doria, M. Tabasso, and S. Vannucci, pp. 635-650, in reference 1.

5. J. Riederer, Further Progress in German Stone Conservation, pp. 369-385, in reference 1.

6. Preservation and Conservation: Principles and Practices (The Preservation Press, Washington, D.C., 1976)

7. G. A. Sleater, A Review of Natural Stone Preservation, NBSIR 74-444, National Bureau of Standards (Washington, D.C., 1973).

8. Stone Preservatives, Digest First Series No. 128, Building Research Station (Garston, England, 1963).

9. Colourless Treatments for Masonry, Digest 125, Building Research Station (Garston, England, 1971).

10. B. L. Clarke and J. Ashurst, Stone Preservation Experiments, Building Research Station (Garston, England, 1972).

11. Decay and Conservation of Stone Masonry, Digest 177, Building Research Station (Garston, England, 1975).

12. G. A. Sleater, Stone Preservatives: Method of Laboratory Testing and Preliminary Performance Criteria, NBS Technical Note 941, National Bureau of Standards (Washington, D.C., 1977)

13. S. Z. Lewin, The Preservation of Natural Stone, 1839-1965, An Annotated Bibliography, Art and Archaeology Technical Abstracts, Vol. 6 (No. 1), pp. 185-277 (1966).

14. E. M. Winkler, Stone: Properties, Durability in Man's Environment, 2nd edition (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1975).

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17. The Treatment of Stone, Proceedings of the Meeting of the Joint Committee for the Conservation of Stone, Bologna, October, 1971 (Centro per la Conservazione delle Sculture all'Aperto, Bologna, Italy, 1972).

18. The Conservation of Stone I, Proceedings of the International Symposium, Bologna, June 1975 (Centro per la Conservazione delle Sculture all'Aperto, Bologna, Italy, 1976).

19. Conservation of New Stone and Wooden Objects, New York Conference, June 1970 (The International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, London).

20. Deterioration and Protection of Stone Movements, International Symposium, June 1978 (Paris).

21. Decay and Preservation of Stone, Engineering Geology Case Histories No. 11, E. M. Winkler ed. (The Geological Society of America, Boulder, 1978).

22. D. Carroll, Rock Weathering (Plenum Press, New York, 1970).

23. F. C. Loughnan, Chemical Weathering of the Silicate Materials (Elsevier Publishing Co., 1969).

24. A. Arnold, Soluble Salts and Stone Weathering, pp. 133-135, in reference 18.

25. L. Arnold, D. B. Honeyborne and C. A. Price, Conservation of Natural Stone, Chemistry and Industry, pp. 345-347 (April 17, 1976).

26. J. Riederer, Stone Preservation in Germany, pp. 125-135, in reference 19.

27. W. H. Dukes, Conservation of Stone: Causes of Decay, The Architects' Journal Information Library, pp. 429-431 (August 23, 1972).

28. J. M. Garrido, The Portal of the Monastery of Santa Maria de Ripoll, Monumentum, Vol. 1, pp. 79-98 (1967).

29. W. H. Dukes, Conservation of Stone: Cleaning Natural Stone Buildings, The Architects' Journal Information Library, pp 497-504 (August 30, 1972).

30. E. M. Winkler, Stone Decay in Urban Atmospheres, pp. 53-58, in reference 21.

31. W. D. Keller, Progress and Problems in Kock Weathering Related to Stone Decay, pp. 37-46, in reference 21.

32. G. E. Likens, Acid Precipitation, Chemical and Engineering News, pp. 29-44 (November 22, 1976).

33. P. P. Hudec, Rock Weathering on the Molecular Level, pp. 47-51, in reference 21.

34. J. Lautridou and J. Ozouf, Relations Entre la Gelivite et les Proprietes Physiques (Porosite, Ascension Capillaire) des Roches Calcaires, Paper 3.3, in reference 20.

35. J. Hirschwald, Mandbuch der Bautechnischen Gesteinsprufung (Borntaeger; Berlin, 1912).

36. G. A. Bole, The Drain Tile Industry of Ohio, Clayworker, Vol. 90 (No. 4), pp. 286-288 (1928).

37. D. W. Kessler and W. H. Sligh, Physical Properties of the Principal Commercial Limestones Used for Building Construction in the United States, United States Bureau Technical Paper No. 34 (Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1927).

38. H. A. La Fleur, The Conservation of Stone. A Report on the Practical Aspects of a UNESCO Course, October and November 1976, Venice, Italy (National Park Service, 1977).

39. L. Barcellona-Vero and M. Montesila, Mise en Evidence de l'Activite des Thiobacilles dans les Alterations des Pierres a Rome Identification de Certaines Souches, paper 4.1, in reference 20.

40. O. R. Lallement and S. Deruelle, Presence de Lichens sur les Monuments en Pierre: Nuisance au Protection, Paper 4.6., in reference 20.

41. S. B. Curri and A. Paleni, Some Aspects of the Growth of Chemolitotrophic Micro-Organisms on the Karnak Temples, pp. 267-278, in reference 18.

42. M. Godette, M. Post, and P. Campbell, Graffiti-Resistant Coatings: Methods of Test and Preliminary Selection Criteria, NBSIB 75-914, National Bureau of Standards (Washington, D.C., 1975).

43. M. Godette, M. Post, and P. Campbell, Graffiti Removers: Evaluation and Preliminary Selection Criteria, NBSIR 75-914, National Bureau of Standards (Washington, D.C., 1975).

44. J. R. Clifton, Protection of Reinforcing Bars with Organic Coatings, Materials Performance, Vol. 15 (No. 5), pp. 14-17 (1976).

45. Stainless Steel Reinforcement, BRE Information 99.78, Building Research Station (Garston, England, November 1978).

46. J. Riederer, No Decomposition of Stone by Air Pollution, Colloque International sur la Deterioration des Pierres en Oeuvre, 1st, La Rochelle (1972).

47. J. Riederer, Recent Advances in Stone Conservation in Germany, pp. 89-93, in reference 21.

48. Y. Efes, The Corrosion of Natural Stones at the Cathedral of Cologne, Centre Belge d'Etude et de Documentation des Eaux, No. 373, pp. 495-507 (December 1974).

49. Y. Efes and S. Luckat, Relations Between Corrosion of Sandstones and Uptakes Rates of Air Pollutants at the Cologne Cathedral, pp. 193-200, International Symposium on the Deterioration of Building materials (Athens, Greece, 1976).

50. I. E. Marsh, Stone Decay and Its Prevention (Basil Blackwell, Oxford, 1926).

51. G. Thomson and R. White, The pH of Rain and the Destruction of Alkaline Stone, Studies in Conservation, Vol. 19, pp. 190-191 (1974).

52. T. Stambolou, Conservation of Stone, pp. 119-124, in reference 19.

53. L. Arnold and C. A. Price, The Laboratory Assessment of Stone, pp. 695-704, in reference 18.

54. R. L. Gauri, J. A. Gwinn and R. K. Popli, Performance Criteria for Stone Treatment, pp. 143-152, in reference 49.

55. K. L. Gauri, D. J. Hagerty and C. R. Ullrich, Comparative Physical Properties of Weathered Impregnated and Unimpregnated Marble, Engineering Geology, Vol. 6, pp. 235-250 (1972).

56. G. Alessandrini, C. M. Del Fa, P. Rossi-Doria, M. Tabasso, and S. Vannucci, pp. 635-650, in reference 18.

57. R. A. Munnikendam, Preliminary Notes on the Consolidation of Porous Building Stones by Impregnation with Monomers, Studies in Conservation, Vol. 12 (No. 4), pp. 158-162 (1967).

58. C. A. Price, Stone Decay and Preservation, Chemistry in Britain, Vol. 11 (No. 9), pp. 350-353 (1975).

59. R. A. Munnikendam, Acrylic Monomer Systems for Stone Impregnation, pp. 15-18, in reference 19.

60. G. Torraca, Brick, Adobe, Stone and Architectural Ceramics: Deterioration Processes and Conservation Practices, pp. 143-165, in reference 6.

61. R. A. Munnikendam, A New System for the Consolidation of Fragile Stone, Studies in Conservation, Vol. 18, pp. 95-97 (1973).

62. R. Wihr, Deep-Impregnation for Effective Stone-Protection, pp. 317-318, in reference 18.

63. K. L. Gauri, Preservation and Strengthening of Porous Solids, U.S. Patent 3,795,533 (1974).

64. L. E. Kukacha, A. Auskern, P. Colombo, J. Fontana, and M. Steinberg, Introduction to Concrete-Polymer Materials, Brookhaven National Laboratory; Available from National Technical Information Service, No. PB 241-691.

65. J. Clifton and G. Frohnsdorff, Polymer-Impregnated Concretes, pp. 174-196, in Cements Research Progress 1975 (American Ceramic Society, Columbus, Ohio, 1975).

66. E. M. Winkler and J. R. Clifton, Solvents for Adobe and Stone Preservatives, Paper 6.14, in reference 20.

67. E. Tammes and B. H. Vos, Vocht in Bouwconstructies, Bouwcentrum (Rotterdam, 1966).

68. J. R. Clifton, Preservation of Historic Adobe Structures-A Status Report, NBS Technical Note 934, National Bureau of Standards (Washington, D.C., 1977).

69. Standard Recommended Practice for Developing Short-Term Accelerated Tests for Prediction of the Service Life of Building Components and Materials, American Society for Test Materials (ASTM) Designation: E632-78.

70. J. R. Clifton, J. E. Fearn and E. D. Anderson, Polymer Impregnated Hardened Cement Pastes and Mortars, Building Science Series 83, National Bureau of Standards (Washington, D.C., 1976).

71. G. Biscontin and R. Pavan, A Consolidant for Stonework Conservation: Test and Experiences, paper 6.2, in reference 20.

72. G. Allesandrini, R. Peruzzi, P. Rossi-Doria and M. Tabasso, Control of the Behavior of the Two Epoxy Resins for "Stone" Treatments, Paper 6.1, in reference 20.

73. R. Munnikendam, private correspondence dated January 1, 1978 to J. R. Clifton.

74. Standard Method of Test for Absorption and Bulk Specific Gravity of Natural Building Stone, ASTM Designation: C97-47.

75. Standard Methods of Test for Water Vapor Transmission of Thick Materials, ASTM Designation: C355-64.

76. N. Heaton, The Preservation of Stone, Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, Vol. 70, pp. 129-139 (1921).

77. E. DeWhite, Soluble Nylon as Consolidation Agent for Stone, Studies in Conservation, Vol. 20 (No. 1), pp. 33-34 (1975).

78. A. P. Laurie and C. Ranken, The Preservation of Decaying Stone, Journal of the Society of the Chemical Industry, Vol. 37, pp. 137T-147T (1918).

79. G. Biscontin, S. Frascati, L. Marchesini, Colour Variations in Old Bricks and Stones as a Result of Consolidation with Resin, pp. 731-747, in reference 18.

80. Test for Instrumental Evaluation of Color Differences of Opaque Materials, ASTM Designation: D2244-68.

81. Test for Specular Gross, ASTM Designation: D523-67.

82. A. H. Munsell, Color Notation, Munsell Color Company, 18th revised edition (Baltimore, 1947).

83. E. W. Winkler, Simple Field Determination of Stone Colors, paper 3.9, in reference 20.

84. L. Arnold and C. A. Price, The Laboratory Assessment of Stone Preservatives, pp. 695-704, in reference 18.

85. A. P. Laurie, Building Materials, Oliver and Boyd Publishing Co. (Edinburgh, 1922).

86. J. Lehmann, Damage by Accumulation of Soluble Salts in Stonework, pp. 35-46, in reference 19.

87. D. S. Knopman, Conservation of Stone Artworks: Barely a Role for Science, Science, Vol. 190, pp. 1187-1188 (Dec. 19, 1975).

88. J. W. Mellor, A Comprehensive Treatise on Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry, Vol. VI, Silicates (Longmans, Green and Co., London, 1925).

89. Encyclopedia of Chemical Reactions, Vol. VI (Reinhold Publishing Corp., New York, 1956.)

90. F. S. Barff, Stone Artificial Stone, Preserving Stone, Colouring, British Patent 2608 (1860); from reference 13.

91. L. Kessler, A Process for Hardening Soft Limestone by Means of the Fluosilicates of Insoluble Oxides, Comptes Rendus, Academie des Sciences, Institute de France, Vol. 96, pp. 1317-1319 (1883).

92. The Artificial Hardening of Soft Stone, Stone, Vol 34, pp. 365-366 (1913).

93. R. Wihr and G. Steenken, On the Preservation of Monuments and Works of Art with Silicates, pp. 71-75, in reference 19.

94. B. G. Shore, Stones of Britain (Leonard Itill Books Ltd., London, 1957).

95. B. Penkala, The Influence of Surface Protecting Agents on the Technical Properties of Stone, Ochrona Zabytrow, Vol 17 (No. 1), pp. 37-43 (1964).

96. A. R. Powys, Repair of Ancient Buildings (J. M. Dent & Sons, Ltd., London, 1929).

97. W. Linke, Solubilities of Inorganic and Metals Organic Compounds, Vol. I (Van Nostrand, Princeton, 1958).

98. H. G. Lloyd, Hardening Stone and Earth, British Patent 441,568 (1934).

99. V. Mankowsky, The Weathering of Our Large Monuments, Die Denkmalpflege Vol. 12, (No. 1), pp. 51-54 (1910); from reference 13.

100. Breathing New Life into the Statues of Wells, New Scientist, pp. 754-756 (22/29 December 1977).

101. A. H. Church, Stone, Preserving and Colouring; Cements, British Patent 220 (1862); from reference 13.

102. A. H. Church, Treatment of Decayed Stone-work in the Chapter House, Westminster Abbey, Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry, Vol. 23, pg. 824 (1904).

103. A. H. Church, Conservation of Historic Buildings and Frescoes, Proceedings of the Meetings of the Members, Royal Institution of Great Britain, Vol. 18, pp. 597-608 (1907).

104. S. Z. Lewin, The Conservation of Limestone Objects and Structures in Study of Weathering of Stone, Vol. 1 (International Council of Monuments and Sites, Paris, 1968).

105. E. V. Sayre, Direct Deposition of Barium Sulfate from Homogeneous Solution Within Porous Stone, pp. 115-118, in reference 19.

106. G. G. Scott, Process as Applied to Rapidly-Decayed Stone in Westminster Abbey, The Builder (London), Vol. 19, pp. 105 (1861); from reference 13.

107. G. Zava, B. Badan and L. Marchesini, Structural Regeneration by Induced Mineralization of the Stone of Eraclea (Agrigento) Theatre, pp. 387-399, in reference 18.

108. S. Z. Lewin and N. S. Baer, Rationale of the Barium Hydroxide-Urea Treatment of Decayed Stone, Studies in Conservation, Vol. 19, pp. 24-35 (1974).

109. C. A. Price, Research on Natural Stone at the Building Research Establishment, Natural Stone Directory (1977).

110. Bosch, Use of Silicones in Conservation of Monuments, pp. 21-26, First International Symposium on the Deterioration of Building Stones (1972).

111. H. Weber, Stone Renovation and Consolidation Using Silicones and Silicic Esters, pp. 375-385, in reference 18.

112. Preserving Building Stone, BRE News, Vol. 42, pp. 10-11 (Winter, 1977).

113. J. Taralon, C. Jaton, and G. Orial, Etat des Recherches Effectuees en France sur les Hydrofuges, Studies in Conservation, Vol. 20, pp. 455-476 (1975)

114. J. Riederer, Die Echaltung Agyptischer Baundenkmaler, Maltechnik Restauro, Vol. 74 (No. 1), pp. 43-52 (1974).

115. A Moncrieff, the Treatment of Deteriorating Stone with Silicone Resins: Interim Report, Studies in Conservation, Vol. 21, pp. 179-191 (1976).

116. K. Hempel and A. Moncrieff, Report on Work since Last Meeting in Bologna, October 1971, pp. 319-339, in reference 18.

117. A. P. Laurie, Preservation of Stone, U.S. Patent 1,607,762 (1926).

118. H. D. Cogan and C. A. Setterstrom, Ethyl Silicates, Industrial Engineering Chemistry, Vol. 39, pp. 1364-8 (1947).

119. H. D. Cogan and C. A. Setterstrom, Chemical Engineering News, Vol. 24, pp. 2499-2501 (1946).

120. H. Marschner, Application of Salt Crystallization Test to Impregnated Stones, paper 3.4, in reference 20.

121. R. Snethlage and D. D. Klemm, Scanning Electron Microscope Investigations on Impregnated Sandstones, paper 5.7, in reference 20.

122. R. Rossi-Manaresi, Treatments for Sandstone Consolidation, pp. 547-571, in reference 18.

123. M. B. Caroe, Wells Cathedral, The West Front Conservation Programme, Interim Report on Aims and Techniques (June, 1977).

124. M. Steinberg et. al., Concrete Polymer Materials, First Tropical Report, Brookhaven National Laboratory Report No. BNL-50134 (1968).

125. L. E. Kukacka, et. al., Concrete-Polymer Materials, Fifth Topical Report, Brookhaven National Laboratory Report No. BNL-50390 (1973).

126. E. Dahl-Jorgensen and W. F. Chen, Stress-Strain Properties of Polymer Modified Concrete, Fritz Engineering Laboratory Report No. FEL 390.1 (Lehigh University, Pennsylvania, 1973).

127. R. B. Seymour, Introduction to Polymer Chemistry (McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1971).

128. K. L. Gauri, P. Tanjaruphan, M. A. Rao and T. Lipscomb, Reactivity of Treated and Untreated Marble in Carbon Dioxide Atmospheres, Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Science, Vol. 38 (No. 1-2), pp. 38-44 (1977).

129. K. L. Gauri and M. V. A. Rao, Certain Epoxies, Fluorocarbon-Acrylics and Silicones as Stone Preservatives, pp. 73-80, in reference 21.

130. Usefulness of Some Vinyl Polymers in the Conservations of Monuments, Ochrona Zabytkow, Vol 14 (No. 3-4), pp. 81-92 (1961); from reference 13.

131. K. F. B. Hempel, Notes on the Conservation of Sculpture, Stone, Marble, and Terracotta, Studies in Conservation, Vol. 13, pp. 34-44 (1968).

132. H. Lee and K. Neville, Handbook of Epoxy Resins (McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1967).

133. W. G. Potter, Uses of Epoxy Resins (Chemical Publishing Company, New York, 1975).

134. K. L. Gauri, Cleaning and Impregnation of Marble, in reference 17.

135. K. L. Gauri, Improved Impregnation Technique for the Preservation of Stone Statuary, Nature, Vol. 228 (No. 5274), pg. 882 (Nov. 28, 1970).

136. K. L. Gauri, Efficiency of Epoxy Resins as Stone Preservatives, Studies in Conservation, Vol. 19, pp. 100-101 (1974).

137. G. Marinelli, Use of an Epoxy Aliphatic Resin in the Consolidation of Porous Building Materials Having Poor Mechanical Properties, pp. 573-591, in reference 18.

138. A. Moncrieff, Work on the Degeneration of Sculptural Stone, pp. 103-114, in reference 19.

139. K. Hempel and A. Moncrieff, Summary of Work on Marble Conservation at the Victoria and Albert Museum Conservation Department up to August 1971, in reference 17.

140. Epoxy Resins Saves Venice Church, Corrosion Prevention and Control, pp. 12-13 (October, 1974).

141. D. A. Whiting, P. R. Blankenhorn and D. E. Kline, Effect of Hydration on the Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Impregnated Concrete, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 4 (No. 3), pp. 467-476 (1964).

142. D. A. Whiting, P. R. Blankenhorn and D. E. Kline, Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Modified Concrete, Journal of Testing and Evaluation, Vol. 2 (No. 1), pp. 44-49 (1974).

143. M. Kranz, l'Evaluation de l'Etat de Conservation de la Pierre et de l'Efficacite des Traitements, pp. 443-453, in reference 18.

144. C. R. Steen, Some Recent Experiments in Stabilizing Adobe and Stone, pp. 59-64, in reference 19.

145. C. Steen, An Archaelogist's Summary of Adobe, El Palacio, Vol. 77 (No. 4), pp. 29-38 (1971).

146. Vitruvius, de Architecturia, I.X.; from reference 58.

147. G. G. Scott, Process as Applied to Rapidly-Decayed Stones in Westminster Abbey, The Builder, Vol. 19 (No. 941), pp. 105 (1861); from reference 13.

148. S. G. Burgess and R. J. Schaffer, Cleopatra's Needle, Chemistry and Industry, pp. 1026-1029 (1952).

149. D. W. Kessler, Exposure Tests on Colourless Materials, Technological Papers of the Bureau of Standards, No. 248.

150. The Preservation of Ruins, Literary Digest, pp. 94-95 (July 16th, 1910).


1. In recent times the term "stone preservatives" has been used to identify water repellent and/or shallow penetrating coatings.

2. Saturation coefficient is defined as the ratio between the natural capacity of a stone to absorb water and its absolute porosity [35].

James. R. Clifton. Stone Consolidating Materials: A Status Report
Contents Intro Deterioration Performance Stone consolidants Comments on consolidants Conclusions References Notes on electronic version

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