[Note: The classification number that follows each entry is an aid to indexing by subject in the yearly index. Some of the citations below are from Paper and Board Abstracts (PBA, recently renamed Paperbase Abstracts), a publication of Pira International, in Leatherhead, Surrey, UK. Pira can supply the full text of most of the documents they abstract. Place orders by fax to 011 44 1372 802050 (new fax number as of September 1995). A photocopy request form is required; this can be supplied by Pira or the Abbey Publications office. Pira's charge for the photocopy is $10.40 for non-Pira members.]
"An Age-Old Medium in the Electronic Era," by Susan McCandless. Graphic Arts Journal, Aug. 1995, p. 17-18. This addresses the question of whether the book will be made obsolete by electronic channels of distribution of text and image. Several publishers and printers in the Salt Lake City area are interviewed, and they agree that the book is here to stay, though the picture is changing. Some are moving aggressively into the new electronic publishing market: not only setting type from disk and producing books on demand with Xerox's "dream machine," the DocuTech, but selling rights to movie producers, and looking into CD ROM, audio books and interactive media.
Book sales went up 200,000 between 1988 and 1994 nationally, but sales to libraries went down, which has hurt the university presses. (2E4)
"Paper Making in an Alkaline Medium," by H. Larson. Tsellyul. Bum. Karton no. 1-2, Jan.-Feb. 1995, pp. 20-23 (in Russian). (PBA Abstract 3658, 1995) Describes the elements of alkaline papermaking, and urges that the process be used in Russia. (3A9.4)
"Measuring the Folding Strength: Round-Robin Test with Various Instruments," by W. Schneider. Papier 49 #5, May 1995, pp. 224, 226-229 (in German). (PBA Abstr. 4467, 1995)
This "round robin" was carried out for the purpose of comparing results from the different folding endurance instruments used both here and in Europe (MIT, Schopper, Kohler-Molin and Lhomargy). The abstract does not say whether one or more labs were involved. A total of 36 instruments were used to test the eight papers. Although each test instrument had the "same number of variances," and 10 MD and 10 CD strips of each paper were tested, there were large differences in the number of folds measured. (3A9.7)
The mechanisms of light-induced yellowing in mechanical pulps (groundwood) were outlined in 1992 by Jim Winters in a talk given at the TAPPI Ad Hoc Paper Permanence Committee. The text and slides were based on a review of available literature, prepared by six authors (Mick Veal and others, including Jim Winters), and was entitled "Reduction in Light-Induced Yellowing of Mechanical Pulps." The yellowing mechanism is outlined: 1) absorbance of light by photoreceptor in lignin; 2) free radical produced; and 3) free radical reacts to produce additional chromophores.
Remedies include modification of the pulping process to eliminate photoreceptor sites in the lignin, and blocking the photochemical pathway to yellowing by a variety of means. The chemical pathway can be blocked by 1) use of reduction and/or alkylation/acetylation, 2) antioxidants, 3) oxygen starvation with polyethylene glycol and antioxidants, 4) physical barriers like coatings and fillers to reduce light intensity, 5) photobleaching, 6) heat treatment and 7) biological agents like wood rot fungi. (3B1.21)
Environmental Influences on the Deterioration of Paper, by John B.G.A. Havermans. Ph.D. dissertation, Technische Universiteit Delft, Netherlands. Rotterdam: Barjesteh, Meeuwes & Co., 1995. 213 p. ISBN 90-5613-010-2. Copyright is held by author and publisher.
The main sections of this printed dissertation, after the introduction, are:
It is well printed on alkaline paper, with many illustrations and appropriate halftones (including one that shows him proudly holding his young baby, on the same page as his curriculum vitae). Much attention is given to reviewing what is known of paper and how it ages, and it is clearly written, so it should be useful to serious nonspecialists.
However, its facts and terminology are not always reliable. For instance, on p. 7, the primary function of cellulose is said to be imparting high "tensile stiffness" and strength to the tree. Tensile strength and stiffness are two entirely different properties. Tensile strength is important for cellulose, and there are several different tensile tests for paper, but cellulose fibers are lacking in stiffness; this is rather the outstanding property of lignin, and is one of the reasons why lignin is removed or modified in the process of pulping. Paper and board can be stiff, but this is a characteristic of the paper structure, rather than of the cellulose fiber.
There are overstatements: on p. 17, for instance, it says that all paper was made in an acid medium from the mid-1800s until about 1980. In this country, and probably in Europe too, alkaline paper has been made continuously by one or more major mills at least since the early 1950s. S.D. Warren led the way, using their own calcium carbonate and Hercules's newly invented Aquapel size. French, Standard, Monadnock, Glatfelter, Mohawk and other mills were all making alkaline or neutral paper by the early 1970s, if not before.
The real value of this wide-ranging dissertation is the way it brings together information that is not readily available elsewhere. For instance, on p. 24 there is a list of 17 research projects on the effects of air pollution on paper deterioration, with columns comparing pollutants used, concentrations and so on. There are sections describing the degradation processes of paper, a very technical analysis of the edge and middle of pages in a 1945 groundwood book from the New York Public Library, and reports of the author's experimental studies of aging with pollutants and deacidifying with diethyl zinc. (3B1.23)
"Resistance of Coated Printing Papers to Accelerated Ageing. Influence of the Coating Colour Composition - Part 2," by H. Hofer et al. Wochenbl. Papierfabr. v. 123, #6, end Mar. 1995, pp. 226, 228, 230-233 (in German). (PBA Abstr. 3149, 1995)
Examines optical, physical and chemical changes under UV-light aging. Acidic paper, whether woodfree or wood-containing, has a marked optical reaction. The aging also resulted in crosslinking and condensation reactions. (3B1.24)
"Chemical Modification of Lignin-Rich Paper. Part 2. Photostabilization by Acetylation of Paper Made from Spruce TMP and Aspen CTMP," by M. Paulsson, R. Simonson and U. Westermark. Nord. Pulp Pap. Res. J. 10 #1, Mar. 1995, pp 62-67.
Acetylated unbleached TMP showed photobleaching during irradiation. Reductive (borohydride) treatment did not have much effect. Improved stability to light was related closely to the decrease in the phenolic hydroxyl content resulting from acetylation. (3B1.4)
"Toward a Three-Dimensional Model of Lignin Structure," by L. Jurasek. Journal of Pulp & Paper Science, 21 #8, Aug. 1995, p. J274-279.
People who have always wanted to know what lignin really looks like may get some satisfaction from this paper, with its computer-constructed model of a spruce lignin macromolecule. They should be aware, however, that different tree (and other plant) species produce different varieties of lignin, and that all lignins are modified by pulping and bleaching.
The authors were interested in the three-dimensional packing of the subunits within the macromolecule, and its shape and internal structure (branching, crosslinking, bond frequencies, and chain length distribution). (3B1.7)
"Introduction to Fluorescence in Fiber Recycling," by Michel Dubreuil. Progress in Paper Recycling, Aug. 1995, p. 98-109.
This plainly written overview is "aimed at both newcomers and experienced recyclers." It includes both general background and short reports of relevant experiments. Fluorescence can originate naturally in the fibers themselves; in artificial fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs); and in paper additives. They need to be controlled in recycled fiber, because they can affect color of the paper as well as brightness. For this, it is important to understand the nature of the FWAs (both natural and artificial) and the way they attach to the fiber.
The article discusses measurement, light sources and instrumentation, the effects of different bleaches, additives that increase or quench the FWAs, current developments and concerns, and future research needed. There is a 50-item bibliography. (3B1.8)
"Security Enhancements for MICR Papers." Sidebar in the story, "Desktop MICR: A Look at Supplies Players, Opportunities for Growing Niche Market," in Imaging Supplies Monthly, July 1995, p. 1-5. The sidebar is on p. 4. It lists ten security measures discussed in the text. Addresses for all suppliers are given in another sidebar.
The 568-page proceedings of the 1995 Papermakers Conference, held 23-26 April 1995, in Chicago, are available from TAPPI PRESS for $82 (members), $122 others, plus shipping and handling. The order number is 01051295 and the ISBN is 0-89852-935-2. TAPPI PRESS's number is 800/332-8686. (3B3)
"Microbiological, Sensory and Toxicological Aspects of Paperboards," by K. Jokinen and R.-M. Osmonen. Pap. Puu 77 #4, Apr. 1995, p. 2002-24. (PBA Abstract 3186, 1995)
The suitability of recycled paperboard for food containers was tested for microbiological purity, odor and taste, and toxicological properties. The recycled board had more fungi and microbes, and it impaired the flavor of food both before and after long-term storage, while board made from virgin fiber did not. Some of both kinds of board were toxic and mutagenic (the abstract does not say how toxic or mutagenic they were). (3B3.1)
"Banana Kelly's Toughest Fight," by Lis Harris. New Yorker, 71:21 (July 24, 1995), p. 32-40. This is the behind-the-scenes story of the Bronx Community Paper Mill, Allen Hershkowitz's idealistic project that would put a recycling paper mill in the South Bronx, with the help of financial support from Warren and MoDo. (This project was on the APA's front page in July 1994.)
"Banana Kelly" is the name of a South Bronx community-development group that works with Hershkowitz. Trouble developed when the engineering and construction company objected to the esthetic considerations that the planners wanted, and its rep did not want to work with Maya Lin (designer of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial) because she was a Latino woman. Then Scott sold Warren to Sappi, which wanted to recover its investment, and MoDo had a new management team that was interested in reducing debt. Both companies withdrew their investment. Then a group of South Bronx residents challenged the landlord's lease on the land in court. (The issue was not the mill, but the landlord, a locally unpopular millionaire.) The lawsuit and other conflicts and problems were unresolved at the time of writing. (3B3.6)
"The Effect of Polysulfide Pretreatment when Kraft Pulping to Very Low Kappa Numbers," by M. Lindstrom and A. Teder. Nord. Pulp Pap. Res. J. 10 #1, Mar. 1995, p. 8-11. (PBA Abstract 3032, 1995) Three effects of polysulfide pretreatment, so far unexplained, were observed when pulping in the range down to kappa number 5: increased yield, slightly quicker delignification, and increase in viscosity at a given kappa number. (3B3.8)
"A New Biobleaching Process Offers a Cost Effective Route for Achieving Elemental Chlorine Free (ECF) Bleaching," by T.S. Venkataraman et al. IPPTA 6 #3, Sept. 1994, p. 119-127. (PBA Abstract 3294, 1995)
Smaller mills (<100 tpd capacity) can not often afford to switch to chlorine dioxide, ozone and oxygen delignification in order to get away from chlorine. Microbial enzymes seem to offer an affordable alternative. This reports results of bleaching bagasse pulp by the ET-Biobleaching Process. A microbial enzyme increases the brightness of the pulp and significantly reduces consumption of bleach chemicals. (3B3.83)
"SCA's Secret Mill," by K. Svensson. Dagens Ind. 20 #84, 11 Apr. 1995, p. 18-19 (in Swedish). (PBA Abstract 3620, 1995) In Östrand, Sweden, near Sundsvall, there is a pulp mill that has completely closed up its bleach plant, eliminating all effluent. It is described as the first mill in the world to do so. The new method is so secret that the company (SCA) has not even applied for a patent. They expect it will take 2-5 years for the competition to catch up. Bleaching is done with hydroperoxide, oxygen gas and ozone. In 1993, the mill's products were CTMP and kraft pulp. (3B3.83)
"Organic Polymers as Retention Aids in the Paper Industry. Their Situation with Regard to the German Water Regulations," by W. Henzelmann et al. Wochenbl. Papierfabr. 123 #6, end Mar. 1995, p. 259-261 (in German). (PBA Abstr. 3013, 1995)
Retention aids are considered environmentally unsafe because they increase chemical diversity and build up toxins and sludge. In Germany, rigorous biological testing is carried out, especially on food packaging. Manufacturers are required to declare the contents of retention aids and keep their level low. (3B3.9)
"G-P Studies Relate Contaminants in Process Streams, Effluents," by Thomas E. Kamey and Sujit Banerjee. Pulp & Paper, Oct. 1995, p. 87-88, 91-92, 95-97.
This is one of Pulp & Paper's "Issue Focus" feature articles. It is an informative report on Georgia-Pacific's 1993-94 analysis of environmental contaminants in pulping and bleaching at two of its mills, both of which are elemental chlorine free (ECF) mills. The Leaf River mill in Mississippi was the subject of a lawsuit for pollution of the river in 1990, for which the plaintiff was awarded $1 million (story in APA for May 1991, p. 18). The other mill was the Brunswick, Georgia, pulp mill.
They sampled not only the mill effluent, but process lines at ten points within the mill, and they tested for 14 classes of contaminants, individual contaminants or other variables: color, pH, cond., TSS, COD, DOC, TOC, AOX, BOD, resin acids, methanol, chlorophenols (which does not include chlorophenol red), volatiles, and TCDD/F. Details of the analysis and findings are given in text, tables and charts for the entire period of the study (nine weeks at Leaf River, three days at Brunswick). The purpose of the study was to observe variability resulting from seasonal and day-to-day changes. A principal finding in both mills was the absence of dioxins, chlorophenols, or acrolein in any of the samples. (3B3.91)
"Comparative Toxicity of Effluents from ECF and TCF Bleaching of Eucalypt Kraft Pulps," by J. Stauber et al. Paper given at APPITA General Conference, 3-7 Apr. 1995, Hobart, Australia. On p. 483-490 of preprints, ISBN 0-646-23600-8. (PBA Abstract 3901, 1995)
Five tests involving fertilization, larval abnormality and survival, and growth inhibition, in small marine life forms were made on effluent before and after it was treated, after four different bleaching sequences. Before treatment, TCF effluents were found more toxic than ECF ones, mainly because of residual peroxide. After treatment, both effluents were still somewhat toxic according to two of the five tests. (3B3.91)
"Adhesive Properties of Secondary Fibre-Containing Printing Papers Produced from ECF and TCF Pulps," by P. Stadler. Polygraph 48 #6, 20 Mar. 1995, p. 51-52 (in German). (PBA Abstract 3774, 1995)
Now that chlorine-free papers have made their way through the recycling loop, publishers are finding that papers made with this furnish are very hard to bind into books, because glue will not stick to them. Two solutions that have been tried are felt damping units and reconditioning aggregates on the printing rolls. (3B3.91)
"Mills Draw from Growing Number of Non-Chlorine, TEF Options," by Terry L. Pulliam. Pulp & Paper, Sept. 1995, p. 75-76, 79, 82-83.
This is a review of nonchlorine bleaching options, effluent recycling and bleach plant closure technology. tef=totally effluent free. (3B3.91)
A brief news item headed "Turning Recovered Paper into Power" is on p. 24 of the January Tappi Journal. It says, "Recovered paper can now be used as fuel for coal-fired boiler plants. The process, called paper pelletizing, can divert waste from landfills and use it as an energy source, according to David T. Modi, Director of Government Affairs in the Washington, DC, office of Georgia-Pacific Corp.
"The process, which includes densifying and processing the paper into a pellet form, will be incorporated in the waste recovery plans of Ashley County, AR, where the community plans to sell the pelletized paper as a boiler fuel to the local Georgia-Pacific paper mill." (3B3.96)
"Biological Treatment of Organic Household Waste," by G. Gavelin. Eur. Papermaker v. 2 #6, Oct. 1994, p. 16-18. (Abstract 1263, PBA , v. 28 #3, 1995) A Danish biogas plant, built in 1991, is described. It takes garbage (up to 20,000 tons) and converts 60% of the organic matter into methane gas, processes 25% into compost and eliminates 15% as contaminants. The process was developed by BTA of Munich. (3B3.96)
"Recycling Legislation: Too Far, Too Fast?" by R. Cockram. Pap. Eur. v. 6, #7, Oct. 1994, p. 27. The abstract (#402, PBA, v. 28 #1, 1995) says, "...Too much recycling produces a list of harm ful effects.... It would seem that a balanced mix of recycling and incineration for energy recovery is best for the environment, incineration itself being environmentally acceptable provided the appropriate technology is used and the necessary emission controls are in place." (3B3.96)
"A Burning Issue," by L. Webb. Paper Focus v. 8 #94, Aug. 1994, p. 17. (Abstract 399, PBA , v. 28 #1, 1995) This is about incineration of waste paper, which has about half the energy value of fuel oil. Fillers in the paper can make it harder to burn, though calcium carbonate filler could neutralize sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions. Chlorine-based compounds, dyes and other compounds may give undesirable air emissions. Waste paper incineration in the UK and Europe is briefly surveyed. (3B3.96)
"Other Uses of Recovered Paper and Residue" (a section of M. Doshi et al.'s semiannual "Industry Review" in Progress in Paper Recycling, Aug. 1995, p. 79 ff. This is on p. 92.)
Six uses of sludge from recycling mills are described in the literature reviewed here, including reuse of long fibers in paper or using the entire residue, combined with other fibers, in panels. One source reports a survey of 25 mills: 14 were landfilling, 7 were incinerating, and 4 were landspreading or composting. (3B3.96)
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