[Note: The classification number that follows each entry is an aid to indexing by subject. Addresses of publishers like TAPPI or Pira can be found in the list of Useful Addresses sent out with this issue.]
The Dictionary of Paper. 5th ed. Edited by Michael Kouris. Atlanta, TAPPI Press, 1996. 450 pp. ISBN 0-89852-059-2. $90; $60 to TAPPI members.
The previous edition appeared in 1980, published by the American Paper Institute. It had omissions: chemithermomechanical, anionic trash, ASA, alkenyl succinic acid, AKD, and alkylketene dimer. No review copy of the new edition has been received, so it cannot be compared with the old one. For information call TAPPI, 800/332-8686. (In Canada, call 800/446-9431; overseas call 770/446-1400.) (1C1)
Thesaurus of Pulp and Paper Terms. Third ed. Atlanta: TAPPI Press, 1991. 557 pages. Item Number: 0802 THES. ISBN: 0-87010-000-9. $95 (members and nonmembers).
The Thesaurus is a joint project of TAPPI, IPST, and Paprican. Over 22,000 main entries, double the number in the last edition. An electronic version is available. (1C1)
Paper Finder: The UK Directory of Papers and Boards - Summer 1995. Kings Langley, UK: Paper Publications Ltd., 1995. 280 pp. £65. (PBA Abstract 2180, 1996)
This reference guide includes a new system of paper and board classification based on end use of products, and then lists all comparable papers or boards together. Products and end uses are indexed separately, and there is a decision path guideline at the start of each main section. (1C4.1)
"History of Paper Making: A Modern Methodology for an Auxiliary Science," by P.F. Tschudin. Investigaci-n y Tecnica del Papel, v. 32, No. 124, Apr. 1995, pp. 240-246. (In Spanish) (PBA Abstract 2416, 1996)
Physicochemical analysis since the 1980s has made possible greater accuracy in dating and establishing provenance of old papers. Watermarks are still of the greatest interest in dating papers. Quality control methods used in current production can apply equally to paper dating. A complete database of watermarks and paper types is one project now underway. (1E3)
"Beta Radiation and X-Ray Examination of Watermarks," by J. C. Gutierrez. Invest. Tec. Pap., v. 32, No. 124, Apr. 1995, pp. 354-359. (In Spanish) (PBA Abstract 1392, 1996)
New investigative techniques using radiography, electrography and beta radiation are being developed. Museums worldwide seek reliable classification methods. Betagraphy has produced the best results to date, characterized by low beta and gamma emissions and requiring little postuse treatment.
[Note: This issue of Investigación y Tecnica del Papel has five other papers on the history, reproduction and registration of watermarks.] (1E4)
"Mozart, the Three Moons and Systematic Exploitation of Watermarks," by F. Schmidt. Int. Pap. Hist., v. 5 no. 2, 1995, pp. 202-4. (In German) (PBA Abstract 2110, 1996)
Musicology is one of the major fields for the study of watermaarks. Alan Tyson has edited the watermarks which appear in the autograph manuscripts of Mozart and found new methods of analysis and description. (1E4)
Moisture-Induced Creep Behaviour of Paper and Board, Stockholm, Sweden, 5-7 December 1994. C. Fellers and T.L. Laufenberg, eds. Stockholm. Sweden: STFI, 1995. 309 pp. (PBA Abstract 1395, 1996)
Topics covered include a discussion of recent work on moisture effects, a description of effects issues for paper and paper products, and paperboard structural performance in corrugated containers. Twelve papers from this conference are abstracted in Paperbase Abstracts v. 29, #2 (1996), including one entitled "Reversible Age Dependence of Tensile Creep and Stress Relaxation in Paperboard." The abstract says "Physical aging has a strong effect on creep and stress-relaxation behavior, but is reversed by a moisture flux."
In aging studies at the Library of Congress, in which white paper was subjected to fluctuating RH, the paper was found to age faster, but creep and relaxation were not studied. So far these two lines of investigation have proceeded independently. (2C1.7)
Ontzuren van boeken en archivalia met het Battelle-proces/ Deacidification of Books and Archival Materials with the Battelle Process. (In Dutch and English) Coördinatiepunt Nationaal Conserveringsbeleid, Den Haag, Netherlands, Feb. 1996. 48 pp. ISSN 0926-2938. Available at the price of 25 Dutch guilders from the CNC secretariat: p/a Prins Willem-Alexanderhof 5, Postbus 90407, 2509 LK Den Haag. The CNC is a joint association of the National Library and the General State Archives of The Netherlands.
The Battelle process originally used magnesium methyl carbonate in freon solvents, but had to use hexadimethyl disiloxane (HMDO) instead of freon. The deacidification agent is now magnesium titanium ethoxide (METE).
This report summarizes and presents test results for the CNC's evaluation of the Battelle deacidification system. They found that it inhibited degradation in 84% of books and 2 out of 3 archival materials, and protected against acid air pollutants. However, it had a number of shortcomings. Many (40%) of the books and 2 out of 3 archival materials lost strength as a result of the treatment; some were not protected. There were side effects: discolorations, white deposit, Newton rings, bleeding of inks and dyes, odor and a different feeling to the paper. It is thought that the high pH of treated materials and the titanium compounds used may catalyze alkaline and photooxidative deterioration. More research and development is recommended. (From the March 1996 Abbey Newsletter, p. 14. 2D5.9)
"The Effect of Air Pollutants on the Permanence of Paper - Part I: Graphic Papers," by P. Zeisler, U. Ramm and L. Gottsching. Papier vol. 49 #10, Oct. 1995, pp. 616, 618-620, 622-233, 626-28. (PBA Abstract 1386, 1996)
The usual factors in the permanence of paper are mentioned, along with another possible one: the deinking process in waste paper. (3B1.2)
"Temperature and Humidity Effects on the Light-Induced Changes in Lignocellulosic Pulps," by I. Forsskahl. 8th International Symposium on Wood and Pulping Chemistry, Helsinki, Finland, 6-9 June 1995, vol III, pp. 9-14. (PBA Abstract 567, 1996)
UV-vis reflectance spectroscopy was used to study the effect of humidity on photochemical changes in lignocellulosic pulps initiated by irradiation. Increased RH enhances discoloration of the pulps during irradiation, with bleached pulps being more sensitive. The yield of volatile products from irradiated chemithermomechanical pulp powders was reduced by increases in RH or an increase in temperature. A reduction in oxygen concentration during the thermal aaging of mechanical pulps also reduces the volatiles content. (3B1.2)
"Accelerated Aging of Paper: Can it Really Foretell the Permanence of Paper?" by Chandru J. Shahani. On p. 120-134 in Proceedings of the ASTM/ISR Workshop on the Effects of Aging of Printing and Writing Papers, July 6-8, 1994, Philadelphia. Preservation Directorate, Library of Congress, Washington, DC, Nov. 1995. 20 pp. Copies are available from Carrie Beyer at 202/707-0236; or fax the Preservation Office at 202/707-3434.
Shahani weighs the advantages and disadvantages of standards based upon composition against those based on accelerated aging results, and reviews some objections to accelerated aging in the literature (Bansa/Hofer, Stroefer-Hua). For permanence studies, he says there is no better choice. But whether an accelerated aging requirement in a permanence standard would be practical is doubtful: Would vendors withdraw a product if it is shown not to meet permanence specs several weeks after delivery?
He reviews current research on the topic, then describes some of the unexpected effects of oven aging that have illuminated our understanding: how paper aged in stacks ages faster than paper in single sheets, because degradation products accumulate in the stacks, much as they do in natural aging of pages within a book; but how the opposite effect is produced when the relative humidity was cycled between 40 and 60%, because the stack protects the papers within it from the more radical changes experienced by the single sheets hanging in the oven. He also describes the effect of encapsulation on paper as it is aged (the enclosure traps the degradation products and accelerates the process), and the effects of different aging conditions. Table 1 is an enlightening comparison of the relative lifetimes of the same paper (Springhill Offset), aged singly, in a stack, encapsulated singly and encapsulated 10 sheets to a package, with different temperatures and relative humidities. The relative lifetimes (time to three half-lives) varied from 0.25 to 17. (From the Dec. 15 Abbey Newsletter. 3B1.21)
"The Role of Thiols in Inhibiting the Light-Induced Yellowing of Lignin-Containing Paper: Benefit or Detriment," by Jiashiu Wang, R. St. John Manley, J.A. Schmidt and Cyril Heitner. (ACS meeting, New Orleans, March 24-26, 1996).
Experimental work has shown that, although thiols have been promoted as inhibitors of light-induced yellowing of lignin-containing paper, they may also have the detrimental effect of degrading the lignin in paper. (3B1.4)
"Photostabilization of Paper Made from High-Yield Pulps by Acetylation," by M. Paulsson, R. Simonson and U. Westermark. 8th International Symposium on Wood and Pulping chemistry, Helsinki, Finland, 6-9 June, 1995, Vol. III, pp. 61-66. (PBA Abstract 312, 1996)
With acetylation, efficient photostabilization of bleached and unbleached thermomechanical pulps was achieved. (3B1.4)
"Effect of Some Deacidification Agents on Copper-Catalyzed Degradation of Paper," by Chandru J. Shahani and Frank H. Hengemihle. [See abstract in "The Effect of Metals on Paper," in this issue.] Distributed as a separate by the Preservation Directorate, Library of Congress, Nov. 1995 (Preservation Research and Testing Series No. 9501).
The other two papers in this Preservation Research and Testing Series so far are:
"Desorption of Residual Ethylene Oxide from Fumigated Library Materials" by F. Hengemihle et al.
"Accelerated Aging of Paper: Can it Really Foretell the Permanence of Paper?" by C. Shahani. To receive copies, call Carrie Beyer at 202/707-0236, or fax the Office at 202/707-3434.
"Thermal Stability of Paper Fillers: A Strong Case for a Low-Temperature Paper Ashing," by Vlad Kocman and Pierre J. Bruno. Tappi J. vol. 79, no. 3, Mar. 1996, p. 303-306.
The usual way to tell how much filler has been used in a paper is to put it in a high-temperature oven (525°C to 925°C) until the organic components have oxidized off, then to weigh the residue. This worked when filler levels were low and only titanium dioxide and clay were used, but now calcium carbonate and other fillers are used that decompose or dehydrate between 450° and 900°C. The authors propose a 400°C ashing method. (3B1.6)
"Lignin Determination by FT-IR," by M.A. Friese and S. Banerjee. Applied Spectroscopy, 46, #2, pp. 246-248, Feb. 1992. (AATA Abstract #29-2016, 1992)
The lignin content of pulp is determined from its diffuse reflectance infrared spectrum by an algorithm that calculates the degree of overlap between two spectra. The lignin-to-cellulose fraction correlates with kappa number. Essentially, no sample preparation is required, and the procedure is insensitive to variations in the moisture content. The algorithm is able to detect changes induced by exposure of pulp to NO2. (From the Dec. 15, 1995, Abbey Newsletter, p. 131b. 3B1.7)
"Minerals Play Pivotal Role in Current, Future Papermaking Trends," by Ken L. Patrick. (An interview with Harry Bigelow, vice president of technology, Omya Inc.) Pulp & Paper, Feb. 1996, p. 123-126.
On the last page of this article, the interviewer asks two questions about filler levels of carbonate. Bigelow answers, in part, "Fiber shortages, or the perception of fiber shortages, have started companies evaluating filler levels to the maximum potential. In Europe, mills are running filler contents as high as 30%. Levels will go just as high in North America. It's only a question of when and with what minerals."
The interviewer asks, "What filler levels are we at now in the U.S., and what do you anticipate for the future?" -to which Bigelow replies, "We're at around 15%. The next plateau will be 20%, and then 25%. If I had to estimate, I would say about a decade per plateau." (3B3.44)
"Quality Copy Paper with High Filler?" by Pat Hurd. PIMA Magazine, March 1996, p. 50-51.
The author says that customers' concern for paper quality has prohibited filler loads higher than 20% in uncoated freesheet grades in North America. Some large scale producers of copy paper reached as high as 18% PCC (precipitated calcium carbonate), but retreated due to these concerns. Typical levels are 12% to 14% PCC. Drawbacks of higher filler loading are a loss in sheet sizing, strength and stiffness, as well as dusting downstream on converting equipment or copier machines.
Traditionally, a filler load increase of 5 percentage points produces a strength loss of 10 to 15%. (3B3.44)
There were several sessions ("symposia") on lignin, pulping and biopulping research at the American Chemical Society's Cellulose Division meeting in New Orleans March 24-29. Four of the papers, listed below by their abstract numbers, were:
122. "Roles for Microbial Enzymes in Pulp and Paper Processing," by T.K. Kirk and T.W. Jeffries (Forest Products Lab, WI). Discusses xylanases (to reduce the amount of chemicals needed for bleaching), cellulases (to smooth fibers, enhance drainage, and promote ink removal), lipases (to reduce pitch), and laccases and lignin-degrading enzymes (to reduce color in effluents and promote lignin removal).
137. "Current Fungal Biotechnologies: Guidelines Useful for Pulping and Bleaching," by T. Kent Kirk. Fungi useful for pulping and bleaching are the higher basidiomycetes, which are nature's major degraders of lignin; but neither the fungi nor their enzymes have been harnessed commercially for this yet.
138. "An Overview of Biopulping Consortia Research," by M. Akhtar, T. Kent Kirk and Robert A. Blanchette. Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, a white-rot fungus, is effective on both hardwood and softwood species if chips are steamed for a very short period of time prior to fungal inoculation. Inoculum production has been enhanced by adding corn steep liquor to the mycelial suspension.
202. "Bio-Sulphite Pulping with Ceriporiopsis Subvermispora," by K. Messnes et al. Work has been done on both laboratory and small pilot scale. (3B3.82)
"Poison Thrives in Food Packages," by A. Kapanen. Tek. Talous no. 40, 9 Nov. 1995, p. 4. (In Finnish). (PBA Abstract 2234, 1996)
Various metals, PCB, formaldehyde and chemical and microbiological impurities have been found in Finnish studies of both domestic and foreign recycled pulp and packaging materials. Elevated levels of zinc and copper have also been found in German studies of recycled packaging materials. No international regulations cover the use of recycled fiber in food packaging.
In that connection, the March 1996 Pulp & Paper has a news item on p. 29 about recycled market pulp bleached with ozone, from Ponderosa Fibres of America. The new pulp product has high brightness, low levels of contamination, and nondetectable levels of fluorescent dyes. The ozone kills much of the bacteria found in deinked pulp. Ponderosa is recommending its new pulp for food contact grades. (This short article does not mention metals in the pulp.) (3B3.9)
"Science Advisory Board Questions EPA's Dioxin Assessment Methods, Findings," by Kirk J. Finchem. Pulp & Paper, Feb. 1996, p. 113-117. This looks like an impartial, detailed summary, well-balanced and clearly written. (3B3.91)
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