Note: The classification number that follows each entry is an aid to indexing and finding citations by subject. Addresses of publishers like TAPPI or Pira can be found in the list of Useful Addresses sent out with the last issue. Pira, a British research association, publishes Paperbase Abstracts (PBA), and can supply the full text of the publications they abstract, for a price; fax them in Surrey, UK, at 011 44 1372 802239, or send an e-mail message to firstname.lastname@example.org.]
"Effects of the Earthquake at Pulp and Paper Mill," by M. Chida, Japan Tappi Journal v. 50, #1, Jan. 1996, pp. 95-102. (PBA Abstract 3366, 1996)
An earthquake and large aftershock off Sanriku, Japan, in late 1994 and early 1995, damaged machinery at Mitsubishi Paper's Hachinohe Mill, as well as water supply pipings, mill housings and foundations. This describes the rather quick recovery made by the mill, and measures taken. (2F8)
1997 International Pulp & Paper Directory. $277 + shipping & handling and state sales tax for selected states. This also has a European edition (353 pages, 6" x 9") and an Asia/Australasia edition (217 pages, 6" x 9"), for $177 each. 30-day free examination period. Contact International Pulp & Paper Directory, 6600 Silacci Way, Gilroy, CA 95020 (408/848-5594, fax 8488-5784). (1C4.4)
Competitive Grade Finder, 1996/97. 30th Ed. 450 pages, listing about 5500 grades (brands) of printing and writing paper, and grouping similar grades together in about 1000 categories. About 35% of it is said to be changed since the last edition. This is the only major paper catalog that tells whether a paper is alkaline or not. It also gives opacity, brightness, weights, and whether a paper is available in colors. $40 from Grade Finders, Inc., PO Box 944, Exton, PA 19341 (610/524-7070 or fax 524-8912). (1C4.5)
"Slime Control Without Chemicals," by F. Braunsperger, J. Oberkofler and T. Moser. Wochenbl. Papierfabr. v. 124 #5, Mid-March 1996, pp. 192-194 (In German. PBA Abstract 4487, 1996).
Toxic chemicals are often used to control the microorganisms that generate slime in pipes and machinery in paper mills. In Austria, where the use of environmentally friendly technologies is emphasized, a completely chemical-free slime control system has been developed and patented. The Biostat process is described in detail, and practical experience described. (2H2.10)
"Biocides--Bug Killers that Enhance Pulpmaking and Papermaking Processes," by John C. Edwards. Tappi Journal v. 79 #7, July 1996, p. 71-76.
This is a well-illustrated overview, written by a free-lance journalist. It covers the problems caused by microorganisms, the characteristics of an ideal biocide, toxicity, problems associated with white water system closure, current technology and innovations. It does not mention the Biostat process. (2H2.10)
"Many Projects Started by the Mechanical Wood-Pulps Network are Ready for Larger-Scale Trials; The Network is Looking for more Commercial Partners," by Graeme Rodden, editor. Pulp & Paper Canada 97:4, 1996, p. 15, 17. Fifteen Canadian universities are in the network, plus Paprican and the National Research Council. Projects have dealt with yellowing, new ways to generate mechanical pulp, process control, pulp processing (including formation and retention), high temperature drying and use of anthraquinone as a catalyst. There are ten projects on recycling. And, at the time this was written, the Network had a proposal pending at ASTM, concerning the effect of lignin on paper permanence (assuming that calcium carbonate will always be used as a filler--but this assumption is not made explicit). (3B1)
"Inhibition of Light-Induced Yellowing of High-Yield Pulp by Sodium Hydroxymethylphosphinate," by J.X. Guo and D.G. Gray. J. Pulp & Paper Science, v. 22 #2, Feb. 1996, p. J64-69.
Sodium hydroxymethylphosphinate is water-soluble, colorless, odorless and stable in storage. It was synthesized and tested as a possible brightness stabilizer for CTMP. It did decrease the formation of chromophores markedly at 360 nm (in the high UV range), but quinone-related yellow compounds appeared not to be inhibited.
[In the 1989 Lee/Bogaard/Feller paper summarized on p. 28 in the last issue, post-irradiation darkening after 120 days of natural aging was observed for a variety of papers--that is, how much darker they became after the lights were turned off. The brightness of filter paper samples was affected very little (though an earlier study showed that they did embrittle significantly in dark storage.) Lignin-containing papers darkened markedly during their four months in dark storage, and they darkened twice as much at pH 3.6 as they did at 10.0. The papers that darkened the most had been exposed to daylight wave lengths rather than to UV, contained the most lignin, and had the lowest pH. One wonders whether Guo and Gray knew about these results. If so, might they have used a longer wave length of light, explored post-irradiation darkening results, and correlated pH with darkening of papers?] (3B1.4)
"Inhibiting the Yellowing of Mechanical Pulp with Adding Aldose and Alditol as well as their Esters and Benzylidene Derivatives," by J. Janson. (PSC Communications 82) Espoo, Finland: KCL Paper Science Centre, 1995. 14 pp. (In Swedish. PBA Abstract 3597, 1996)
Ribitol and xylitol are shown by this study to be the best inhibitors, but the most practical (cheapest or most available?) are glucitol and xylitol. (3B1.4)
"TCF Bleaching and Yellowing of Sulphite Pulp," by N. Soteland. Papirforskning #1, 1996, p. 15. (In Norwegian. Paperbase International, 1996, Abstract 6788)
Sulphite pulp that is bleached without using chlorine, using oxygen and peroxide, turns yellow even with a kappa number as low as 4 to 8, whereas kraft pulp does not have this tendency. The author studied the structure of residual lignin to identify the reason. (3B1.4)
"Development of Biopolymer Adsorbents for Heavy Metal Ion Separations," by R.G. Rorrer and T-Y. Hsien. 1996 Minimum Effluent Mills Symposium, Atlanta, GA, 22-24 Jan., pp. 261-267 (Atlanta, GA: TAPPI Press, 1996. 384 pp. $66.50. ISBN 0-89852-656-6)
Chitosan is a glucosamine biopolymer obtained from the shells of marine organisms. It is a cheap, plentiful and environmentally favorable material that shows a high selectivity towards heavy metal ions over alkali metal ions. Chitosan biopolymer beads have been synthesized with a high internal surface area, which can adsorb nearly 200 mg of metal per gram of adsorbent. (3B1.5)
"Metal--Some Solutions." This is a section in the report of the 1996 International Pulp Bleaching Conference in Pulp & Paper Canada, 97:6, 1996. One of the paragraphs in this section is of interest. It describes a study by Christine Chirat to learn the mechanism of H2O2 delignification. She monitored its reaction with kraft pulp residual lignin, and proposed adding the metal ions Fe3+ and Cu2+ to encourage the formation of certain radicals that play a key role in H2O2 delignification.
[Peroxide is known as an effective lignin-preserving bleaching agent, according to Smook's Handbook for Pulp and Paper Technologists. It improves the brightness of groundwood and other highly lignified pulps without significant yield loss, when it is used at temperatures below 55°C. At higher temperatures (70° to 80°C), it can bleach chemical pulp, brightening it and increasing brightness stability; but at these higher temperatures, heavy metal ions are likely to destabilize the peroxide. Protection against the metal ions is given by a prior acid stage or by adding chelating agents. It is not clear how heavy metal ions could be used to help delignification, as Chirat describes in her paper, without deactivating the peroxide or degrading the cellulose.] (3B1.5)
"A Papermaker Survey," by Reg Adams. Papermaker, June 1996, p. 33-35.
This is an easy-to-read survey of the demand for wet-end chemicals, written by the British editor of two monthly bulletins on paper chemicals. Such surveys are handy for keeping up with trends in alkaline papermaking, recycling and so on. This one reviews retention aids, ways of coping with foam, stickies and slimes, internal sizing (as opposed to surface sizing), dry and wet strength, and the systems and services that are often sold along with the chemicals.
Universal trends pointed out are the increasingly-stringent legislation or regulation of paper mill effluents, the use of higher filler/fiber ratios, and the resultant demand for better retention of filler. In addition, paper machines are faster and wider, which leads to a demand for faster drainage and less downtime for clearing out sticky deposits and slimes.
More attention is being given to sizing and strengthening agents to compensate for the weakness of recycled fiber. Starch is widely used [and probably makes the paper more appetizing to insects and mold in later years -Ed]. Other dry-strength additives are carboxymethyl cellulose, natural gums (especially guar gum), and polyacrylamides. Wet-strength additives are melamine-formaldehyde and urea-formaldehyde resins, polyamine-epichlorhydrin and aminopolyamide-epichlorhydrin resins, and polyethyleneimine. (3B1.8)
"Dewatering and Consolidation of Wet Webs," by I.I. Pikulik, D.G. Sparkes, N.A. Poirier and R.H. Crotogino. Pulp & Paper Canada 97:2, 1996, p. 34-42. The functions of the dry end of the paper machine (pressing, drying and calendering) are usually thought of as separate and sequential, but new technologies are blurring the distinctions among them: for instance, pressure and heat are being used simultaneously to dry, strengthen and consolidate the web, and to provide the smooth surface that calendering usually gives.
This article is essentially a review of research, practice and present trends in dewatering and consolidation of wet webs. The authors give a good overview of what happens at each stage, including the effect on the fiber network, and support each major point with a footnoted reference. The bibliography lists 71 publications.
As machine speed increases, the limiting factor has become the dry end, and new ways of pressing and drying have had to be found. Nip loads (pressure exerted by the cylindrical press rolls) have steadily increased, and may be as high as 1000 kN/m. Temperatures used in some of the newer methods (Condebelt drying, impulse drying, high-intensity drying, and superheated steam drying) range over 100°C--high temperatures, but for a limited period of time. The high temperature makes the water easier to remove, and strengthens the paper by increasing bonding area. (3B1.8)
"Extractives in Mechanical Pulp can Cause Allergic Contact Dermatitis," by A-T. Karlberg and E. Gafvert. Nord. Pulp Pap. Res. J. vol. 11 #2, May 1996, p. 70-73. (Paperbase Abstracts, 1996, #6709)
This study reviews contact dermatitis attributed to oxidized resin acids from stoneground and thermomechanical pulps. It describes allergic and contact reactions to paper, and the chemical structures of some of the resin acids. (3B3.1)
"AKD Boosts Machine/Sheet Performance," by Eric Padovani and Karen Smith. PIMA Magazine July 1996, p. 46-47.
Two employees of Eka Chemicals describe the performance and advantages of their company's new self-retentive alkyl ketene dimer (AKD) size. (3B3.4)
Minerals Technologies Inc. 1995 Annual Report. Minerals Technologies Inc., The Chrysler Bldg., 405 Lexington Ave., New York, NY 10174-1901.
Between page 4 and page 14 there is some illustrated text, with imbedded facts that help round out the picture of where and how precipitated calcium carbonate is used, here and elsewhere. In 1995, MTI put into operation PCC plants in Poland and Portugal; in 1996, a plant in Brazil. Two more (in Brazil and Thailand) were started up in early 1996; two more (in Brazil and Israel) will start up in mid-1996. Wherever such plants are built, alkaline paper will be made on a regular basis. Although alkaline paper can be made in mills that have no onsite PCC plant, the mills with PCC plants are strongly driven to use the PCC in as many papers as they can, and there is no percentage in going back to acid.
MTI has a patent for acid-tolerant PCC, used in groundwood paper, which is normally manufactured in an acid environment. This includes newsprint, magazine and catalog paper. Groundwood paper makes up about half of all paper used for printing and writing, worldwide (counting newsprint). "Several" MTI customers in different parts of the world are using acid-tolerant PCC, but the company does not identify them. (3B3.44)
"Alum," by S.R. Boone. Introduction to Wet End Chemistry Short Course, Orange Beach, US, 15-17 Feb. 1995. 14 pp. [TAPPI Press, Atlanta, 1995, 493 pp., $217.05 (ISBN 0-89852-948-4)]
This lecture describes, in a series of slides, the chemical composition of alum, its physical properties, hydration, dissociation, hydrolysis, and complex ion changes with pH; and how it reacts with alkali. Preferred alternatives (sodium aluminate and polyaluminum chloride) are described. (3B3.45)
Directory of Recycled Pulp & Paper Mills - Raw Materials and End Products. 1996-1997. Supplement to the May 1996 issue of Progress in Paper Recycling. About 225 pages. $45 (within the US) from Progress in Paper Recycling, PO Box 2771, Appleton, WI 54913-2771 (414/832-9101, fax 832--0870). (3B3.6)
"Risks of Recycled Fiber Projects Make Virgin Fiber More Attractive," by David Null. Pulp & Paper, July 1996, p. 115-119.
Increasing recovered fiber prices, uncertain recovered paper supply and extreme price volatility during the middle 1990s may lead to fewer paper recovery projects and decreased investment in recycled paper plants. Except for certain geographical areas with volatile wood supply prices, the price of wood fiber increases very gradually, about 3.5%/year over the period 1980-1995, but the price of major wastepaper grades may increase 15-fold over the course of a year. (3B3.6)
"Heading for Uncharted Waters," by Theodore R. Wirtz. PIMA Magazine, Oct. 1995, p. 34-36.
The author, a management consultant, has a typology of the paper industry that classifies mills according to how specialized they are, and by all the features that put them at their level of specialty. The levels are: commodity, semi-commodity, semi-specialty and specialty. (Companies that produce alkaline and permanent papers are in all four groups.) The features by which they are classified are market size (number of tons produced yearly), average selling prices (below $1,000 per ton to $2,500 per ton), typical markets (i.e., type of paper produced: newsprint, tissue, printing and writing, packaging), and manufacturing capabilities (width, speed and type of paper machine, type of fiber used, ownership of pulp mills and forest lands). Typical companies for each level are listed.
The kinds of papers typically produced for the specialty paper markets include absorbent papers, album papers, art paper, black paper, blotting paper, file folder, interleaving paper, map paper and wet strength papers. The message for the specialty mills, which are highly sensitive to the price of market pulp and which suffered in 1994-95, is to be less resistant to change; to adapt their management philosophy (especially their marketing approach) to the competitive challenges of the 1990s. The performance of the most successful specialty mills suggests a basis for the recommendations made. (3B3.71)
"Pulp from Papermakers: 1st Urban Fiber Comes on Line," by Jackie Cox. Papermaker, April 1996, p. 26-29. Normally, pulp mills produce virgin pulp (which may or may not be sold on the market), and paper mills have deinking plants to turn waste paper into deinked pulp for their own production. 1st Urban Fiber is a state-of-the-art pulp mill in Hagerstown, MD, that sells to the market.
Bruce Hynes, president and general manager, says that when it comes to manufacturing deinked pulp, it is no longer a matter of "tossing it in, beating it up, and pumping it out. Using deinked pulp is no longer a matter of getting the wet lap [moist, newly made layers of pulp] to the pulper before the mushrooms sprout. The first of the second generation of deinked pulp is now on the market, 90% air dried bales of deinked pulp, which don't sustain the growth of microorganisms, and are very much akin to what was on the paper machine originally." (3B3.8)
"Accelerated Degradation of Cellulose in the Presence of Lignin During Ozone Bleaching," by K. Magara et al. 1996 International Pulp Bleaching Conference, Washington, DC, 14-18 Apr., Book 2, p. 553-558. [Atlanta, TAPPI Press, 1996, 645 pp., 2 vols., $94. ISBN 0-89852-661-2]
Ozone-bleached pulp has a rather low viscosity, compared to pulps bleached with chlorine. This is a major obstacle to commercialization of chlorine-free bleaching. It seems to be related to the action of oxygen species formed from the reaction of ozone and lignin compounds with phenolic hydroxyl groups. (3B3.83)
"The Kinetics of Residual Delignification and Factors Affecting the Amount of Residual Lignin During Kraft Pulping," by C.T. Lindgren and M.E. Lindström. J. Pulp & Paper Sci. v. 22 no. 8, Aug. 1996, p. J290-J295.
The last 1% or so of lignin in wood pulp is extremely hard, if not impossible, to remove without degrading the cellulose. Previous investigators have looked at conditions in the delignification stage just before residual delignification to see whether any of them facilitated the removal of that residual lignin. These authors looked at the effects of hydroxide ion concentration, hydrosulphide ion concentration, ionic strength and temperature. They note that only the hydroxide ion concentration and temperature seem to influence the rate of residual delignification. The amount of residual lignin is decreased by a higher hydroxide ion concentration, but not by the temperature. (3B3.83)
"Big Wheels Keep on Turning." Vision Paper News, Spring edition, March, 1996, p. 1-2. The EPA's definition of "environmentally preferable paper" in Executive Order 12873, which requires government purchase of recycled paper, does not include paper made of kenaf and other nonwood fibers. Vision Paper News, which promotes the use of kenaf, is working to get kenaf accepted as a viable alternative to wood pulp. They can be contacted at KP Products, Inc., in Albuquerque (505/294-0293, e-mail email@example.com). (3B3.84)
"First Wheat Straw Particleboard Plant." Forest Products Journal, v. 46, #3, Mar. 1996, p. 13 (PBA Abstract 4267, 1996).
The plant, which is in Wahpeton, southeastern North Dakota, started up in July 1995. It uses a formaldehyde-free isocyanate binder from the Swedish firm Daproma System. The goal is to get straw on contract from about 25 farmers, for $3 million annually, and to produce one ton of board for every 1.2 tons of straw. (3B3.84)
"Idealists are Carried Away by Hemp," by L. Gottsching. Allg. Pap.-Rundsch. v. 120, #11-12, 20 Mar. 1996, pp. 332, 334. (In German. PBA Abstract 5225, 1996)
Germany lifted its ban against hemp as of the beginning of 1996, and it can be grown again there. The disadvantages of annual plants are listed. Pulp mills for annual plants are the biggest polluters of the environment within the whole pulp and paper industry, the author says, and storage of the harvest is a problem, so it makes more sense for hemp fiber to be supplied from third world countries. (3B3.84)
"Analysis of Residual Lignin Structure from Modern Pulping Technologies," by Peter M. Froass, Jian E. Jiang and Arthur J. Ragauskaas (IPST and Kamyr Inc.). Paper presented at the American Chemical Society's Cellulose Division meeting in New Orleans, Mar. 24-29. It summarizes recent studies directed at examining the nature of residual lignin in low-lignin containing kraft pulps. Lignin isolated from a series of conventional and extensively delignified kraft pulps were analyzed by 13C, 31P, and 1H-NMR and differences in lignin structure were correlated to changes in pulping processes. (3B3.86)
"Non-Process Elements in a Bleached Kraft Pulp Mill with Increased System Closure," by P. Ulmgren. This was a paper given at the 1996 Minimum Effluent Mills Symposium, Atlanta, GA, 22-24 Jan. 1996, p. 17-26 in the preprints (TAPPI Press, 1996, $66.50). (PBA Abstract 4413, 1996)
In order to recycle rather than discharge effluent from pulp mills, something like a kidney is needed to prevent accumulation of problem elements, particularly elements that do not form insoluble inorganic compounds in alkaline solutions, as well as transition elements and alkaline earth metals. A method of precipitation, filtration and bleaching is outlined as a possible solution.
[It is interesting to note the parallel with the sick building syndrome, which became common after it became easier to construct "tight" buildings that would be easier to heat and cool; also with the Biosphere, which was supposed to have a self-sustaining ecology.] (3B3.9)
"Hitting the 'Green Wall'," an AP staff report. Papermaker, June 1996, p. 42-43.
A major roadblock to successful management of environmental issues in North American businesses is the "green wall"--the point at which management refuses to implement its environmental program, thus bringing it to a halt. A survey of environmental, health and safety managers at 185 corporations identified the causes of the green wall. These included corporate downsizing, tight financial controls, new management philosophies that redirect priorities, environmental strategies that are too broad, and poor communication between environmental and business management about potential competitive advantages. Too often, the environmental managers have not "sold" their program to management. A report by Robert Shelton of Arthur D. Little, called "Hitting the Green Wall," is available without charge by calling Pat Mahon at Arthur D. Little, 617-498-5777. (3B3.9)
Practical Paper-Making. A manual for paper-makers and managers of paper mills. To which are appended useful tables, calculations, data, etc., by George Clapperton. With ill. reprod. from micro-photographs. London: Crosby Lockwood and Son 1894. xii, 208, 48, 16 S., VIII pl. kl.8°.
Also in the Deutschen Bücherei Leipzig. (3B4)
"Authority to Print Report as Senate Document," an address by Sen. Claiborne Pell. Congressional Record--Senate, Sept. 25, 1996, p. S11326-S11238. Authority is formally requested to print the "Final Report to Congress on the Joint Resolution to Establish a National Policy on Permanent Papers" as a Senate document, and to make several hundred extra copies for the use of the Joint Committee on the Library. (This is the same report that was featured in the most recent issue of the Alkaline Paper Advocate.)
Senator Pell then reviews the problem of brittle acidic paper, which had moved him in 1988 to introduce the bill that later became Public Law 101-423; he tells how James Billington, the Librarian of Congress, described the brittle book problem as a major one; and how Robert Frase, former vice president and economist of the Association of American Publishers, helped conceive and "bring to fruition" the Joint Resolution to address that problem. He touches on Barrow's research; public awareness of the problem; resolutions by the ALA, IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions), and the International Publishers Association; the ANSI/NISO standard; the three reports required by the law, to let Congress know how the law was being carried out; the increased availability and use of alkaline paper; the executive ruling that recent mandates to use recycled paper are not to conflict with use of permanent paper; the publishers' pledge to use alkaline paper at least for first printings; environmental regulations that stimulated conversion to alkaline papermaking; and the booklet that lists North American permanent papers, from Abbey Publications.
This address puts the history and background of the permanent paper law on the record (4.1)
"Recycled Paper Marketing Moves from Fashionable to Economic Phase," by Ken McEntee. Recycled Paper News, July/ Aug. 1996, p. 5, 9. People no longer buy recycled paper to save the earth, or to alleviate the landfill crisis, according to the people interviewed for this article, but they will buy it if it is comparable with virgin paper in quality and competitively priced. (3B3.6)
"Effects of a Starch-Based Foam Packing Material Entering a Waste Paper Recycle Mill," by J.A. Parsley, R.A. Venditti and J.A. Heitmann. 1996 Recycling Symposium, New Orleans, LA, 3-6 Mar. 1996, pp. 75-79 [TAPPI Press, Atlanta, 1996, 493 pp., $76 (ISBN 0-89852-657-4)]
Packing material made of polystyrene foam or starch-based foam often makes its way to recycling mills in old corrugated containers. Both are contaminants. The effect of starch-based foam packing on mill processes and on the paper product are described. The strength and water penetration of the product, and the chemical oxygen demand of the effluent are affected. Dispersible adhesives and biodegradable packing can be serious problems in the mill. (3B3.61)
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