JAIC , Volume 39, Number 3, Article 2 (pp. to )
JAIC online
Journal of the American Institute for Conservation
JAIC , Volume 39, Number 3, Article 2 (pp. to )

SALTS IN THE DETERIORATION OF POROUS MATERIALS: AN OVERVIEW

A. ELENA CHAROLA, & Herodotus



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This article was developed through a US/ICOMOS contract under a grant from the U.S. National Park Service and the National Center for Preservation Technology and Training. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the author and do not necessarily represent the official position or policies of the National Park Service or the National Center for Preservation Technology and Training.



REFERENCES

Aires-Barros, L., M. J.Basto, R. C.Graça, A.Dionisio, J.Delgado Rodrigues, F. M. A.Henriques, and A. E.Charola. 1998. Stone deterioration on the tower of Belem. International Journal for Restoration of Buildings and Monuments4(6):611–26.

Amadori, M.L. L.Lazzarini, and S.Massa. 1990. Il deterioratmento da sodio cloruro di rocce compatte e porose a Venezia. In First International Symposium on the Conservation of Monuments in the Mediterranean Basin, ed. F.Zezza. Brescia: Grafo. 83–89.

American college dictionary. 1962. New York: Random House. S.v. “hygroscopicity.”

Amoroso, G. G., and V.Fassina. 1983. Stone decay and conservation. Amsterdam and New York: Elsevier.

Arnold, A. 1982. Rising damp and saline minerals. In Fourth International Congress on the Deterioration and Preservation of Stone Objects, ed. K. L.Gauri and J. A.Gwinn. Louisville, Ky.: University of Louisville. 11–28.

Arnold, A., and A.Kueng. 1985. Crystallization and habits of salt efflorescences on walls, I, Methods of investigation and habits. In Fifth International Congress on the Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, ed. G.Félix. Lausanne: Presses Polytechniques Romandes. 255–67.

Arnold, A., and K.Zehnder. 1985. Crystallization and habits of salt efflorescences on walls II. Conditions of crystallization. In Fifth International Congress on the Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, ed. G.Félix. Lausanne: Presses Polytechniques Romandes. 269–77.

Arnold, A., and K.Zehnder. 1988. Decay of stony materials by salts on humid atmosphere. In Sixth International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, ed. J.Ciabach. Torun: Nicholas Copernicus University. 138–48.

Arnold, A., and K.Zehnder. 1990. Salt weathering on monuments. In First International Symposium on the Conservation of Monuments in the Mediterranean Basin, ed. F.Zezza. Brescia: Grafo. 31–58.

Behlen, A., M.Steiger, and W.Dannecker. 1997. Quantification of the salt input by wet and dry deposition on a vertical masonry. In Fourth International Symposium on the Conservation of Monuments in the Mediterranean Basin, ed. A.Moropoulou et al. Rhodes and Athens: Technical Chamber of Greece. 237–46.

Camuffo, D.1998. Microclimate for cultural heritage. Amsterdam and New York: Elsevier.

Camuffo, D., M.Del Monte, C.Sabbioni, and C.Vittori. 1982. Wetting, deterioration and visual features of stone surfaces in an urban area. Atmospheric Environment16(9):2253–59.

Camuffo, D., M.Del Monte, and C.Sabbioni. 1983. Origin and growth mechanisms of the sulfated crusts on urban limestone. Water, Air and Soil Pollution19:351–59.

Camuffo, D., M.Del Monte, and C.Sabbioni. 1987. Influenza delle precipitazioni e della condensazione sul degrado superficiale dei monumenti in marmo e calcare. Materiali Lapideisupp. to the Bolletino d'Arte, no. 41. Rome: Ministero per i Beni Culturali e Ambientali. 15–36.

Charola, A. E., and R. J.Koestler. 1985–86. SEM study of the deterioration of monumental stones in Vienna. In Wiener Berichte über Naturwissenschaft in der Kunst, ed. A.Vendl et al.Vienna: Orac. 176–82.

Charola, A. E., and J.Weber. 1992. The hydration-dehydration mechanism of sodium sulphate. In Seventh International Congress on the Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, ed. J.Delgado Rodrigues et al.Lisbon: Laboratorio Nacional de Engenharia Civil. 581–590.

Chatterji, S., P.Christensen, and G.Overgaard. 1979. Mechanisms of breakdown of natural stones caused by sodium salts. In Third International Congress on the Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, ed. B.Badan. Padova: Università degli Studi di Padova. 131–34.

Correns, C. W.1926. Über die Erklärung der sogennanten Kristallisationskraft. Berichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaft11:81–88.

Correns, C. W.1949. Growth and dissolution of crystals under linear pressure. Discussions of the Faraday Society5:267–71.

Correns, C. W., and W.Steinborn. 1939. Experimente zur Messung und Erklärung der sogennanten Kristallisationskraft. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie101:117–33.

Cussler, E. L., and J. D. B.Featherstone. 1981. Demineralization of porous solids. Science213:1013.

Delgado Rodrigues, J.1991. Causes, mechanisms and measurement of damage in stone monuments. In Science, technology and European cultural heritage, ed. N. S.Baer et al.Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. 124–37.

Delgado Rodrigues, J.1996. Conservation of granitic rocks with application to the megalithic monuments. Conclusions report. In Degradation and conservation of granitic rocks in monuments. Protection and Conservation of European Cultural Heritage Research Report 5. Brussels: European Commission. 161–242.

Doehne, E.1994. In situ dynamics of sodium sulfate hydration and dehydration in stone pores: Observations at high magnification using the environmental scanning electron microscope. In Third International Symposium on the Conservation of Monuments in the Mediterranean Basin, ed. V.Fassina et al.Venice: Soprintendenza ai Beni Artistici e Storici di Venezia. 143–50.

Domaslowski, W.1982. La conservation préventive de la Pierre. Paris: UNESCO.

Duttlinger, W., and D.Knöfel. 1993. Salzkristallisation und Salzschadensmechanismen. In Jahresberichte Steinzerfall: Steinkonservierung 1991, ed. R.Snethlage. Berlin: Ernst & Sohn. 197–213.

Evans, I. S.1969–70. Salt crystallization and rock weathering: A review. Revue de Géomorphologie Dynamique19(4):153–77.

Feilden, B. M.1982. Conservation of historic buildings. London: Butterworth Scientific. 99–107.

Fitzner, B., and R.Snethlage. 1982. Einfluß der Porenradienverteilung auf das Verwitterungsverhalten asugewälter Sandsteine. Bautenschutz ± Bausanierung5(3):97–103.

Franke, L., and F.Pinsler. 1998. Untersuchungen von Saltztransportprozessen und deren Visualisierung mit Hilfe der Röntgen-analytik. International Journal for Restoration of Buildings and Monuments4(3):187–207.

Gisbert, J., C.Martin-Chaves, and N.Andaluz. 1996. Black crusts from Rueda Cloister: An approximation to fossil effects of pollution in a semi-arid climate. In Eighth International Congress on the Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, ed. J.Riederer. Berlin: Möller Druck. 387–92.

Goudie, A., and H.Viles. 1997. Salt weathering hazards. Chichester: J. Wiley & Sons.

Grassegger, G., and S.Adam. 1994. Untersuchungen zur Entwicklung der mikroskopischen Gefüge von Kieselsäureester-Gelen in Porenräumen mit und ohne Salz-, Feuchtestöreffekte. In Jahresberichte Steinzerfall: Steinkonservierung 1992, ed. R.Snethlage. Berlin: Ernst & Sohn. 127–33.

Grossi, C. M., R. M.Esbert, L. M.Suárez del Río, M.Montoto, and M.Laurenzi-Tabasso. 1997. Acoustic emission monitoring to study sodium sulphate crystallization in monumental porous carbonate rocks. Studies in Conservation42:115–25.

Henriques, F.M.A.1994. Humidade em paredes. Lisbon: Labóratorio Nacional de Engenharia Civil. 1–17.

Iñiguez Herrero, J.1967. Altération des calcaires et des grès utilisés dans la construction, trans. J. Stichelbaudt. Paris: Eyrolles. 28–45.

Kozlowski, R., J.Magiera, J.Weber, and J.Haber. 1990. Decay and conservation of Pinczow porous limestone. Part 1. Lithology and weathering. Studies in Conservation35:205–21.

Krauskopf, K. B.1979. Introduction to geochemistry. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Lewin, S. Z.1982. The mechanism of masonry decay through crystallization. In Conservation of historic stone buildings and monuments. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. 120–44.

Lewin, S. Z.1990. The susceptibility of calcareous stones to salt decay. In First International Symposium on the Conservation of Monuments in the Mediterranean Basin, ed. F.Zezza. Brescia: Grafo. 59–53.

Massari, G., and I.Massari. 1993. Damp buildings, old and new. Rome: ICCROM. 7–12.

McMahon, D. J., P.Sandberg, K.Folliard, and P. K.Mehta. 1992. Deterioration mechanisms of sodium sulfate. In Seventh International Congress on the Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, ed. J.Delgado Rodrigues et al.Lisbon: Laboratorio Nacional de Engenharia Civil. 705–14.

Mortensen, H.1933. Die “Salzsprengung” und ihre Bedeutung für die Regionalklimatische Gliederung der Wüsten. Dr. A. Petermanns Mitteilungen. Gotha: Justus Perthes. 79:130–35.

Price, C. A.1978. The use of the sodium sulphate crystallization test for determining the weathering resistance of untreated stone. In Deterioration and protection of stone monuments. International Symposium. Paris: UNESCO-RILEM. 3.6.

Price, C. A.1996. Stone conservation: An overview of current research. Santa Monica, Calif.: Getty Conservation Institute, J. Paul Getty Trust. 7–9.

Price, C. A., and P.Brimblecombe. 1994. Preventing salt damage in porous materials. In Preventive conservation, practice, theory and research, ed. A.Roy and P.Smith. London: International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works. 90–93.

Pühringer, J.1983a. Salt disintegration: Salt migration and degradation by salt—A hypothesis. D15:1983. Stockholm: Swedish Council for Building Research.

Pühringer, J.1983b. Salzwanderung und Verwitterung durch Salze. In Materials science and restoration, ed. F. H.Wittmann. Filderstadt: Edition Lack + Chemie. 361–66.

Pühringer, J.1986. Mögligkeit zur Verhinderung von Schäden durch Salze. In Materials science and restoration, ed. F. H.Wittmann. Ostfildern: Technische Akademie Esslingen. 359–64.

Pühringer, J., L.Berntsson, and B.Hedberg. 1985. Hydrate salts and degradation of materials. In Fifth International Congress on the Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, ed. G.Félix. Lausanne: Presses Polytechniques Romandes. 231–40.

Pühringer, J., and L.Engström. 1985. Unconventional methods for the prevention of salt damage. In Fifth International Congress on the Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, ed. G.Félix. Lausanne: Presses Polytechniques Romandes. 241–50.

Rivas Brea, T., B.Prieto Lamas, and B.Silva Hermo. 1994. Plaque-shedding by granite in the monastery of San Martín Pinario (Santiago de Compostela, NW Spain). In Third International Symposium on the Conservation of Monuments in the Mediterranean Basin, ed. V.Fassina et al.Venice: Soprintendenza ai Beni Artistici e Storici di Venezia. 737–41.

Rodriguez-Navarro, C., and E.Doehne. 1999. Salt weathering: Influence of evaporation rate, supersaturation and crystallization pattern. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms24:191–209.

Rodriguez-Navarro, C., E.Hansen, E.Sebastian, and W. S.Ginell. 1997. The role of clays in the decay of ancient Egyptian limestone sculptures. Journal of the American Institute for Conservation36:151–63.

Rossi-Manaresi, R., and A.Tucci. 1990. Pores structure and salt crystallization: “Salt decay” of Agrigento Biocalcarenite and “case hardening” in sandstone. In First International Symposium on the Conservation of Monuments in the Mediterranean Basin, ed. F.Zezza. Brescia: Grafo. 97–100.

Rossi-Manaresi, R., and A.Tucci. 1991. Pore structure and the disruptive or cementing effect of salt crystallization in various types of stone. Studies in Conservation36:53–58.

Silva, B., M.Casal, B.Prieto, T.Rivas, and F.Guitián. 1994. Form and factors of weathering in the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela (NW Spain). In Third International Symposium on the Conservation of Monuments in the Mediterranean Basin, ed. V.Fassina et al.Venice: Soprintendenza ai Beni Artistici e Storici di Venizia. 743–48.

Snethlage, R., and E.Wendler. 1997. Moisture cycles and sandstone degradation. In Saving our architectural heritage: The conservation of historic stone structures, ed. N. S.Baer and R.Snethlage. Chichester: Elsevier. 7–24.

Snethlage, R., E.Wendler, and D. D.Klemm. 1996. Tenside im Gesteinsschutz—Bisherige resultate mit einem neuen Konzept zur Erhaltung von Denkmälern aus Naturstein. In Natursteinkonservierung in der Denkmalpflege, ed. R.Snethlage. Berlin: Ernst & Sohn. 127–46.

Sperling, C. H. B., and U.Cooke. 1980. Salt weathering in arid environments. Part 1, Theoretical considerations. Papers in Geography, no. 8. London: Department of Geography, Bedford College.

Sperling, C. H. B., and U.Cooke. 1985. Laboratory simulation of rock weathering by salt crystallization and hydration processes in hot, arid environments. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms10:541–55.

Steiger, M.1996. Distribution of salt mixtures in a sandstone monument: Sources, transport and crystallization properties. In EC Research Workshop on Origin, Mechanisms and Effects of Salts on Degradation of Monuments in Marine and Continental Environments, ed. F.Zezza. Protection and Conservation of the European Cultural Heritage. Research Report 4. Bari: European Commission. 241–46.

Steiger, M., A.Behlen, H.-H.Neumann, U.Willers, and C.Wittenburg. 1997. Sea salt in historic buildings: Deposition, transport and accumulation. In Fourth International Symposium on the Conservation of Monuments in the Mediterranean Basin. Ed. A.Moropoulou et al.Rhodes/Athens: Technical Chamber of Greece.

Steiger, M., and W.Dannecker. 1995. Hygroskopische Eigenschaften und Kristallisationsverhalten von Salzgemischen. In Jahresberichte Steinzerfall: Steinkonservierung 1993, ed. R.Snethlage. Berlin: Ernst & Sohn. 115–28.

Steiger, M., H.-H.Neumann, T.Grodten, C.Wittenburg, and W.Dannecker. 1998. Salze in Natursteinmauerwerk: Probenahme, Messung und Interpretation. In Natursteinkonservierung 2, ed. R.Snethlage. Stuttgart: Fraunhofer IRB Verlag. 61–91.

Steiger, M., H.-H.Neumann, A.Ulrich, and W.Dannecker. 1993. Chemische Zusammensetzung und Verteilung löslicher Salze in Natursteinmauerwerk. In Jahresberichte Steinzerfall: Steinkonservierung 1991, ed. R.Snethlage. Berlin: Ernst & Sohn. 21–33.

Steiger, M., and A.Zeunert. 1996. Crystallization properties of salt mixtures: Comparison of experimental results and model calculations. In Eight International Congress on the Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, ed. J.Riederer. Berlin: Möller Druck. 535–44.

Tucci, A., R. J.Koestler, A. E.Charola, and R.Rossi-Manaresi. 1985. The influence of acid rain and UV radiation on the ageing of acrylic and silicone resins. In Fifth International Congress on the Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, ed. G.Félix. Lausanne: Presses Polytechniques Romandes. 891–98.

Vos, B. H.1971. Suction of groundwater. Studies in Conservation16:129–44.

Weber, H.1984. Mauerfeuchtigkeit. Sindelfingen, Germany: Expert Verlag. 15–37.

Wellman, H. W., and A. T.Wilson. 1965. Salt weathering: A neglected geological erosive agent in coastal and arid environments. Nature205(4976):1097–98.

Wellman, H. W., and A. T.Wilson. 1968. Salt weathering or fretting. In Encyclopedia of geomorphology, ed. R. W.Fairbridge. Stroudsburg, Pa.: Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross. 968–70.

Wendler, E.1991. Zum Mechanismus der Schalenbildung bei tonigen Sandsteinen. Jahresberichte Steinzerfall: Steinkonservierung 1989, ed. R.Snethlage. Berlin: Ernst & Sohn. 71–76.

Wendler, E., and R.Rückert-Thümling. 1992. Gefügezerstörendes Verformungsverhalten bei salzbefrachteten Sandsteinen unter hygrischen Wechselbelastung. In Materials science and restoration, ed. F. H.Wittmann. Ehningen bei Böblingen, Germany: Expert Verlag. 1818–30.

Weyl, P. K.1959. Pressure solution and the force of crystallization: A phenomenological theory. Journal of Geophysical Research64(11) 2001–25.

Winkler, E. M.1975. Stone: Properties, durability in man's environment. 2d ed. Vienna and New York: Springer Verlag.

Winkler, E. M., and E. J.Wilhelm. 1970. Salt burst by hydration pressures in architectural stone in urban atmosphere. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America81:567–72.

Zehnder, K.1993. New aspects of decay caused by crystallization of gypsum. In Conservation of stone and other materials.Vol. 1. Causes of disorders and diagnosis, ed. M.-J.Thiel. London: E & FN Spon. 107–14.

Zehnder, K.1996. Gypsum efflorescences in the zone of rising damp: Monitoring the slow decay processes caused by crystallizing salts on wall paintings. In Eighth International Congress on the Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, ed. J.Riederer. Berlin: Möller Druck. 1669–78.

Zehnder, K., and A.Arnold. 1989. Crystal growth in salt efflorescence. Journal of Crystal Growth97:513–21.

Zezza, U., E.Previde Massara, V.Massa, and D.Venchiarutti. 1985. Effect of temperature on intergranular decohesion of the marbles. In Fifth International Congress on the Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, ed. G.Félix. Lausanne: Presses Polytechniques Romandes. 131–40.


AUTHOR INFORMATION

A. ELENA CHAROLA obtained her degree in chemistry from the Universidad Nacional de La Plata in her native country, Argentina. She completed her postdoctoral work at New York University and stayed in the United States, becoming a citizen 20 years ago. She served as associate chemist in the Department of Objects Conservation at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, scientific adviser at ICCROM (International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property) in Rome, Italy, and consultant to the Easter Island Program for World Monuments Fund (WMF). Since her return to the United States some 10 years ago, she has continued as technical consultant to WMF, including projects in other countries (Torre de Belem and Mosteiro dos Jerónimos, Lisbon, Portugal, and Belvedere, Vienna, Austria) while being an independent consultant in conservation. She has been lecturer in advanced architectural conservation in the Graduate Program in Historic Preservation, University of Pennsylvania, and national chair of the Brick Masonry Committee of US/ICOMOS since 1996. Address: 3618 Hamilton St., Philadelphia, Pa. 19104

Received for review March 3, 2000. Revised manuscript received April 29, 2000. Accepted for publication May 15, 2000.